Whenever you start a project in Python you probably want to do it in a fresh environment so as not to have your dependencies clash with those of other projects, prevent version mismatch or other unexpected breakage.
The way to do this is by using virtual environments. As far as I know there are
several ways to do this in Python (as always…) but the most prevalent, it
seems to me, is using the builtin
Since I’m prone to forgetting the syntax and exact setup of such a thing, here’s a walkthrough of how to go about this that may also serve as a cheat sheet, most of all for future me.
Best practices are as follows:
- Create a new folder for your project
- Create a new virtual environment with:
python3 -m venv [path_to_project]/venv
- This will create an environment called
venvinside your project root directory. Activate the environment:
- Install any necessary dependencies with
pip install [package_names]
- Start coding
For deactivating the environment again you can simply type
venv folder holding the environment should not be edited manually. Also
the project files do not go in there, they sit next to it in the project root
folder. This ensures that the environment stays clean and portable so you can
tear it down and rebuild it or distribute it to others.
Also, if you’re using version control (which you should for any half-serious
project), make sure to exclude the
venv folder from it. When using, e.g.,
git this amounts to adding
venv to your
.gitignore file. Otherwise you’ll
just pollute whatever online repo you push to with a lot of unnecessary stuff.
To ensure portability, create a list of all locally installed dependencies with:
pip freeze > requirements.txt
Obviously, you can direct the output to another file or do whatever with it but this is the convention.
When setting up a new environment you can then do
pip install -r requirements.txt
to restore the state of your previous or someone else’s environment.
Note, however, that the Python version within your environment will be the same as the version you used to create it, which will usually be your system-wide version.
That’s all there is to it to be productive with this. Have fun.